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suzanne simard overstory

Den’s love—and all types of diversity. range of complex characters, that makes me feel all the more troubled by what 2015). 4.4 out of 5 stars 3,561. Several explanations for this are possible, and it is reasonable that a plurality of mechanisms occurs, but the relative contribution of one over the other may vary depending on the conditions of the MN. The relative speed of the change, the presence of stimuli and non-permanence of the change (e.g. a change of heart. Overstory asks This was demonstrated in the rapid transfer of labile carbon from the roots of injured EMF seedlings to healthy neighbours (Song et al. By choosing to live nearly thirty miles from where I teach, I’m hurting the environment. But once we begin, then As a professor at a Mercy university, I want to do a better job helping my students explore one of the Mercy Critical Concerns: care for the Earth. Cahill JF, McNickle GG, Haag JJ, Lamb EG, Nyanumba SM, St. Clair CC. These questions are all explored via the main human characters in Powers’ metafictional masterpiece. Lab Photos; Lectures & Talks; Films; Research Videos; News and Events. These responses were linked to improved seedling survival and productivity, and hence regenerative capacity of the forest. When she shares her discovery, she is ridiculed by her peers and loses her position. I do not eat a lot of At the University of British Columbia she initiated with colleges Dr. Julia Dordel and Dr. Maja Krzic the Communication of Science Program TerreWEB, which has been training graduate students to become better communicators of their research since 2011. Mechanisms underlying the behavioural changes include mycorrhizal fungal colonization by the MN or interplant communication via transfer of nutrients, defence signals or allelochemicals. 2009, 2010), and thus suggest a degree of control by the donor over the amount of carbon passed to the networking fungi, where the donor may donate excess photosynthate to the MN where it is then shuttled based on strength of the sink (Simard et al. of trees and plants connect him with his beloved Olivia/Maidenhair. Simard, who has spent the last three decades studying the mechanisms that fuel our forests, then went on to demystify the “quiet, cohesive way of the woods,” explaining that trees—in many ways—are just like us. 2007) and shoot and root growth of the young seedlings (Teste et al. I aimed to help them interpret literature through a wide variety of lenses, most of them related to some type of history: economic history; intellectual history; the histories of race, colonialism, gender, sexuality, and class. are others? it? This influence is thought to occur because the MN serves either as a pathway for interplant exchange of resources and stress molecules or as a source of fungal inoculum (Fig. Taken together these findings reveal one mechanism by which plants actively communicate with fungal symbionts to encourage root colonization, with direct consequences for plant behaviour. I wanted more than this short sentence: “At Holyoke, Mimi is a LUG: Lesbian Until Graduation” (38). They, like Powers’ novel itself, are human art paying tribute to trees. Under the drought conditions in this study, carbon transfer did not co-occur with water transfer, indicating plasticity in plant behavioural responses to limiting resources. Targeted loss of hub trees, however, can cross thresholds that destabilize ecosystems. Why? The spectrum of symbiotic relationships can range from mutualistic, where both partners benefit, or commensal, where one partner benefits while the other is unaffected, to parasitic where one partner exploits the other (Egger and Hibbett 2004). In the first section of the novel, “Root,” which introduces the nine main human characters, Quinn has placed a sketch of leaves from each character’s tree at the start of the chapter that bears their name. The guilds are then stabilized either through tit-for-tat relationships or reciprocal altruism between the plants and the fungi. Since plants form the basis of terrestrial ecosystems, their behavioural interactions, feedbacks and influences are important in generating the emergent properties of ecosystems (Levin 2005). These studies clearly show a rapid physiological response of recipient plants to stress signalling transmitted through MNs, even in plants of a different genus, indicating a shift in plant behaviour to protect fitness. 2012; Asay 2013). And every branch smells of deliverance. world. Mass flow can also be generated by fungal mycelium growth, and diffusion or active transport mechanisms may operate during active fungal cell expansion at growing mycelium fronts (Heaton et al. Framer of cities, king of industrial trees, that tree without which America would have been a very different proposition. people are mostly to blame for climate change. In previous studies, allelochemicals, demonstrated under laboratory conditions to reduce vigour and growth of recipient plants, were discounted as having meaningful impact in situ due to the assumption that they were transmitted through aerial release (Duke 2010). 2010). How can we feel enough grief to fuel the changes we need to I’m generating unnecessary carbon emissions and contributing to climate change. A lower-tech artist is Iowan Nick Hoel, the human character 2005). Especially about connection. Get it as soon as Wed, Jul 22. 2010) and negative (Achatz et al. Plett JM, Daguerre Y, Wittulsky S, Vayssières A, Deveau A, Melton SJ, Kohler A, Morrell-Falvey JL, Brun A, Veneault-Fourrey C, Martin F. Schoonmaker AL, Teste FP, Simard SW, Guy RD. foster attitudes and practices related to the suicide economy, but then Neely has 2014). In an MN linking EMF Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine, defoliation of Douglas-fir with the insect Choristoneura occidentalis (western spruce budworm) induced defence enzyme production in neighbouring linked ponderosa pine within 24 h of infestation (Song et al. 2013; Beiler et al. (2009) define behaviour as the expression of plant plasticity that is like a decision point, where each choice involves trade-offs that will affect fitness. Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window), debate about whether white authors should depict characters of color. Although fewer plant species have been found to form symbioses with EMF, in comparison to AMF (Brundrett 2009), the hosts of EMF tend to be widely dispersed, abundant and dominant members of their assemblages. photo of the lone chestnut growing on their farm. I do not buy a lot of stuff. At least not that I remember after reading the 2015). Song et al. In reality, author Peter Wohlleben wrote The Hidden Life of Trees in 2016, using Simard’s work as a central focus. Suzanne Simard is a producer, known for Biochar: Putting Carbon Underground (2012), … However, there is strong evidence that biochemical signals derived from mycorrhizas or roots are involved. Genealogy for Suzanne Simard (1789 - d.) family tree on Geni, with over 190 million profiles of ancestors and living relatives. Changes to the fitness of connected neighbouring plants and associated organisms can also have ecosystem-wide impacts. wrote the first draft, and S.W.S., M.A.G., A.K.A. When five of the novel’s human characters come together to protest deforestation in California, they use this slogan: NO TO THE SUICIDE ECONOMYYES TO REAL GROWTH. For example, Semchenko et al. complicity. 2013). In The Overstory, Westerford writes a book, The Secret Life of Trees. 2014), revealing that not all chemicals moving through the MN benefit the receiving plant. This stunning portrayal of love brilliantly counters human exceptionalism. 2015). experienced and acknowledged our environmental grief. The relatedness of neighbours in mono-specific plant communities can also influence whether MNs will elicit adaptive behavioural changes. his game and its “learners” begin transforming people and the rest of the Yet it is But I skimped on natural history. Patricia’s discoveries are based on the work of real-life scientists Diana Beresford-Kroeger and Suzanne Simard: The things she [Patricia] catches Doug-firs doing, over the course of these years, fill her with joy. Through the study of MNs, we are beginning to characterize the connections that are important to behaviour of system agents and thus ecosystem stability. curious. Why did I make this choice? Kai M, Haustein M, Molina F, Petri A, Scholz B, Piechulla B. Karabaghli-Degron C, Sotta B, Bonnet M, Gay G, Le Tacon F. Kariman K, Barker SJ, Finnegan PM, Tibbett M. Karst J, Erbilgin N, Pec GJ, Cigan PW, Najar A, Simard SW, Cahill JFJr. Thank you for submitting a comment on this article. A mycorrhiza is typically a mutualistic symbiosis between a fungus and a plant root, where fungal-foraged soil nutrients are exchanged for plant-derived photosynthate (Smith and Read 2008). Every one imagines that fear and anger, violence and desire, rage laced with the surprise capacity to forgive—character—is all that matters in the end. 2014). 2005), possibly due to a greater population size of the pathogen-antagonistic rhizosphere microbe, Pseudomonas fluorescens (DeLong et al. him to live with her for a year in a giant redwood named Mimas. 2015), suggestive of group selection. 2009, 2010). As a professor of literature, I need to green my Recent work has shown that the EMF species Laccaria bicolor secretes an effector protein (MiSSP7) that suppresses host jasmonic acid production, a typical host defence response that interferes with fungal infection, with the effect of enhancing L. bicolor colonization of host roots (Plett et al. The fitness of all participants in this scenario is increased by the existence of the MN: (i) the mycorrhizal fungus acquires carbon from the tree (or multiple trees) and may use the mycoheterotroph as the staging ground for long-distance exploration and colonization, (ii) the mycoheterotroph acquires carbon from the fungus and (iii) the tree gains access to a wider pool of soil resources, and potentially connection to other trees facilitating the detection of defence signals. Simard SW, Beiler KJ, Bingham MA, Deslippe JR, Philip LJ, Teste FP. The hierarchical integration of this phenomenon with other biological networks at broader scales in forest ecosystems, and the consequences we have observed when it is interrupted, indicate that underground ‘tree talk’ is a foundational process in the complex adaptive nature of forest ecosystems. UNIT 1 LAB QUESTIONS Suzanne Simard: How trees talk to each other 1. 2009). For instance, interplant resource exchanges are thought to be regulated by source–sink relationships within the MN, where one plant that is rich in nutrients serves as a source (donor) of compounds for a neighbouring plant that is poor in nutrients, which thus serves as a sink (receiver) (Simard et al. I. There will be findings, unbelievable truths confirmed by a spreading worldwide web of researchers in Canada, Europe, Asia, all happily swapping through faster and better channels. Powers’ novel made it real for me that magnificent living beings had died to make the pages in my hands. Simard SW, Perry DA, Jones MD, Myrold DD, Durall DM, Molina R. Simard SW, Hagerman SM, Sachs DL, Heineman JL, Mather WJ. novel only once. Upon reviewing the evidence, we agree with Wilkinson (1998) that individual selection appears sufficient to explain evolution within MNs, but we also concur with Perry (1995) and Whitham et al. more I reflect on Overstory, the more And in my and an NSERC Discovery Grant and NSERC CREATE Grant to S.W.S. Powers also offers hope with other aspects of his Suzanne Simard is a professor of forest ecology and teaches at the University of British Columbia. Schematic of resources and signals documented to travel through an MN, as well as some of the stimuli that elicit transfer of these molecules in donor and receiver plants. 39 $18.95 $18.95. ), Mycorrhizal facilitation of kin recognition in interior Douglas-fir (, Mycorrhiza-mediated competition between plants and decomposers drives soil carbon storage, Underground signals carried through common mycelial networks warn neighbouring plants of aphid attack, Reducing paper birch density increases Douglas-fir growth rate and Armillaria root disease incidence in southern interior British Columbia, Neurological view of plants and their body plan, The fungal fast lane: common mycorrhizal networks extend bioactive zones of allelochemicals in soils. My partner and I both attended grad school at the University of Iowa. is missing. 2014), and in the transfer of nitrogen from N2-fixing or fertilized source plants to non-N2-fixing sink plants (He et al. Plant behaviour is defined as a change in plant morphology or physiology in response to environmental stimuli, including responses to chemicals, light and water, that occurs within a plant's lifetime (Karban 2008). Suzanne Simard is a professor of forest ecology and teaches at the University of British Columbia. Fitter AH, Graves JD, Watkins NK, Robinson D, Scrimgeour C. Gay G, Normand L, Marmeisse R, Sotta B, Debaud JC. Forest tree mycorrhiza - the conditions for its formation and the significance for tree growth and afforestation, Mycorrhizal associations and other means of nutrition of vascular plants: understanding the global diversity of host plants by resolving conflicting information and developing reliable means of diagnosis, Plants integrate information about nutrients and neighbors, Fluorescent pseudomonad population sizes baited from soils under pure birch, pure Douglas-fir, and mixed forest stands and their antagonism toward, Influences of established trees on mycorrhizas, nutrition, and growth of, Allelopathy: current status of research and future of the discipline: a commentary, Specificity of interplant cycling of phosphorus: the role of mycorrhizas, Common mycorrhizal networks provide a potential pathway for the transfer of hydraulically lifted water between plants, The evolutionary implications of exploitation in mycorrhizas, Lateral root stimulation in the early interaction between, Coarse-scale population structure of pathogenic, Plant kin recognition enhances abundance of symbiotic microbial partner, Carbon transfer between plants and its control in networks of arbuscular mycorrhizas, Direct transfer of carbon between plants connected by vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal mycelium, Biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid by the pine ectomycorrhizal fungus, Genetic evidence for auxin involvement in arbuscular mycorrhiza initiation, Use of 15N stable isotope to quantify nitrogen transfer between mycorrhizal plants, Advection, diffusion, and delivery over a network, Explaining evolution of plant communication by airborne signals, The plastic plant: root responses to heterogeneous supplies of nutrients, The molecular revolution in ectomycorrhizal ecology: peeking into the black-box, Mutualistic mycorrhiza-like symbiosis in the most ancient group of land plants, Measuring carbon gains from fungal networks in understory plants from the tribe Pyroleae (Ericaceae): a field manipulation and stable isotope approach, Interplant signalling through hyphal networks, Bacterial volatiles and their action potential, The auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) inhibits the stimulation of in vitro lateral root formation and the colonization of the tap-root cortex of Norway spruce (, Dual mycorrhizal associations of jarrah (, Ectomycorrhizal fungi mediate indirect effects of a bark beetle outbreak on secondary chemistry and establishment of pine seedlings, Mutualistic stability in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis: exploring hypotheses of evolutionary cooperation, Reciprocal rewards stabilize cooperation in the mycorrhizal symbiosis, High genetic variability and low local diversity in a population of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, Mountain pine beetle and forest carbon feedback to climate change, Host preferences and differential contributions of deciduous tree species shape mycorrhizal species richness in a mixed Central European forest, The biology of myco-heterotrophic (‘saprophytic’) plants, Self-organization and the emergence of complexity in ecological systems, Biology of mycoheterotrophic and mixotrophic plants. 1997a). “The Overstory,” by Richard Powers, is a kaleidoscopic tale about our imperiled natural world. (2011) demonstrated that MNs facilitated the transport of natural allelochemicals, thiophenes, as well as the herbicide, imazamox, resulting in decreased growth in receiver plants. 2006; Kai et al. metafiction. 2009). 2014), which may also lower the resource costs of enzyme production, or promote genotypic complementarity between hosts and co-adapted fungal associates. and S.W.S. But in an American novel, how much diversity is enough? From the plant's perspective, the second reason why it would pass carbon to its networking fungus that then passes it to an unrelated plant individual is that there is an evolutionary advantage to the plant through support of the highly diverse and adaptive mycorrhizal symbionts in the MN. Walder F, Niemann H, Natarajan M, Lehmann MF, Boller T, Wiemken A. Whitham TG, Bailey JK, Schweitzer JA, Shuster SM, Bangert RK, LeRoy CJ, Lonsdorf EV, Allan GJ, DiFazio SP, Potts BM, Fischer DG, Gehring KA, Lindroth RL, Marks JC, Hart SC, Wimp GM, Wooley SC. For instance, anastomosis with existing MNs of established plants is considered the most common mechanism for mycorrhizal fungal colonization of regenerating plants in situ (van der Heijden and Horton 2009; Kariman et al. 2012). 2015). There aren’t even separate species. Amazon is not named in novel, but it’s obvious that Nick’s Fulfillment Center in Bellevue, Washington is supposed to make readers think of the company named after the rain forest: The product here is not so much books as that goal of ten thousand years of history, the thing the human brain craves above all else and nature will die refusing to give: convenience. Why would a fungus pass carbon it acquires from one plant to another plant? (2014) found up-regulation of four defence-related genes in healthy neighbours 6 h after AMF tomato donors were infested with the leaf-chewing caterpillar Spodoptera litura Fabricius, likely in response to signalling via the jasmonate pathway through the MN. Powers exposes the words growth, progress, and fulfillment as dangerous doublespeak. (383). Humphreys CP, Franks PJ, Rees M, Bidartondo MI, Leake JR, Beerling DJ. I’m a voracious reader who loves not just literature, but physical books. 2014). In an earlier study, Song et al. Resilience is an emergent property of the interactions and feedbacks in scale-free networks (Levin 2005). 2012). These higher order interactions represent trophic cascades generated by pest infestation triggering signal propagation through the MN. In a separate study, water transfer from replete to drought-stressed conspecifics through MNs was also associated with increased growth (Bingham and Simard 2011). My favorite character in the novel, the scientist Patricia Westerford, receives Ovid’s book as a gift from her father, and she often muses on its opening line. 2008), then there could be a high degree of relatedness between parent trees and neighbouring seedlings. 2014). Observing the movement of resources and signalling molecules in field situations will give us a better understanding of how the various components discovered in greenhouse experiments actually manifests to generate the complex ecosystem patterns we observe. Heaton LLM, López E, Maini PK, Fricker MD, Jones NS. It will take years for the picture to emerge. 2008), and potentially gene regulation of connected neighbours connected (Song et al. With the exception of Joyce Kilmer’s  poem (“I think that I shall never see/ a poem as lovely as a tree”), I hadn’t considered that trees might be superior to humans. These findings reveal that MNs can play an integral role in kin selection, but the exact mechanisms by which they do this are unclear. On IMDb TV, you can catch Hollywood hits and popular TV series at no cost. Underground ‘tree talk’ is a foundational process in the complex adaptive nature of forest ecosystems. But at the same time, he once again indicts our She realized that there were roots and other layers that made up the forest. The novel helped me recognize and explore the grief I feel when I drive I-380 from Iowa City, where I live, to Cedar Rapids, where I teach. Arrow-straight, untapering, soaring up a hundred feet before the first branch. Whether they were caused by the observed carbon, nitrogen or water transfer, or by some other facilitative effect of the MN, remains unknown. by Richard Powers | Apr 2, 2019. 2004). The long-distance transport of carbon and/or nutrients appears to occur predominantly by advective mass flow driven by the source–sink gradient generated by these interplant nutrient differences (Simard et al. We focus this review on our new findings in ectomycorrhizal ecosystems, and also review recent advances in arbuscular mycorrhizal systems. In Iowa City, we have deep roots. Overstory made me ponder what we humans mean by “the world” and our place in it. But there are many areas of my life—besides The origins of this symbiosis are thought to be ancient and have been proposed as a mechanism for facilitating land colonization by plants 400 Mya (Redecker et al. 2007; Bingham and Simard 2011), nitrogen (Teste et al. Overstory made me ponder what we humans mean by “the world” and our place in it. Mycorrhizal associations of plants have large-scale ecosystem-wide consequences (Averill et al. How many other books are printed on such life-saving paper? Pickles BJ, Genney DR, Potts JM, Lennon JJ, Anderson IC, Alexander IJ. 2010) and AMF systems (Hanlon and Coenen 2011). Clearly, I need to branch out and read more science, more natural history. Net carbon transfer occurs under soil disturbance between Pseudotsuga menziesii var. Tit-for-tat, distinct from mutualisms, is evident in bidirectional transfer between paper birch and Douglas-fir (Simard et al. Networked together underground by countless thousands of miles of living fungal threads, her trees feed and heal each other, keep their young and sick alive, pool their resources and metabolites into community chests …. In support of this, we found that ponderosa pine received both carbon and defence signals from damaged neighbouring Douglas-fir through networking mycorrhizal fungi (Song et al. 1, Table 1). In the classroom, I need to find more effective ways of encouraging my students to consider questions of representation. Likewise, Douglas-fir grew larger when in mixture with linked ponderosa pine, likely due to modified growth behaviour to gain access to excess phosphorus via the MN that would otherwise have been consumed by ponderosa pine as ‘luxury consumption’ (Perry et al. Mission & Vision; Facilities; People; Ongoing Research Projects; Publications; Media. The second sentence opens with what seems to be a typically anthropocentric metaphor: the natural world serves to illuminate human love. Assuming that selection occurs at the individual or gene level, we suggest two possible reasons why a plant would support a fungus that then passes its carbon to another plant. Her “aha” moment was when her dog Jigs fell into the outhouse by the lake. For instance, plant hosts have responded to mycorrhizal colonization via MNs by adjusting production of fine roots (e.g. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Her favorite individuals stand scattered near the station. Song YY, Ye M, Li C, He X, Zhu-Salzman K, Wang RL, Su YJ, Luo SM, Zeng RS. 2000; Humphreys et al. I’m not sure. unpubl.). A fungus can express a mutualism with one plant, while simultaneously exploiting a different plant. The MN can thus integrate multiple plant species and multiple fungal species that interact, provide feedbacks and adapt, which comprise a complex adaptive social network. McNickle et al. The link between trees and people is also made by the book’s designer, Marysarah Quinn. We now know that MNs can influence plant establishment (Dickie et al. So much rich food for thought in this essay. They’re an ecosystem unto themselves, hosting more than a thousand species of invertebrates. No African Americans. The Overstory is a sweeping, impassioned work of activism and resistance that is also a stunning evocation of - and paean to - the natural world. The architecture of the MN is scale-free, where hub trees are highly connected relative to other trees in the forest (Beiler et al. Mycoheterotrophic plants are perhaps the most extreme example of this type of exploitation, where a plant acquires all of its carbon by parasitizing fungi through the MN (e.g. This appears to be linked with mycorrhizal association of this system as mycorrhizal colonization was also elevated in kin seedlings (File et al. Plants that are connected via an MN can rapidly modify their behaviour in response to fungal colonization and interplant biochemical communication. The Simard Lab. As minor Mary, of what sort? Herbivore- and pathogen-induced stress responses were up-regulated in undamaged neighbours in as little as 6 h following insect or fungal infestation of donor plants linked in AMF MNs (Song et al. In a recent study using stable-isotope probing, we found that MNs transmitted more carbon from older ‘donor’ Douglas-fir seedlings to the roots of younger kin ‘receiver’ seedlings than to stranger ‘receiver’ seedlings, suggesting a fitness advantage to genetically related neighbours (Pickles et al. Perry (1995) argues that evidence for group selection exists in cooperative guilds, where multiple plants are linked together by MNs for mutual aid. Or that using 100% recycled paper could save 480. 1994a, b). Am I now such a person? Thus, the ability of the MN to facilitate allelochemical delivery represents a higher order interaction with direct impacts on the behaviour of the sender and receiver plants. The primary importance of plant–sink strength in governing the magnitude and direction of resource transfer through MNs is illustrated in studies showing transfer of carbon to rapidly growing EMF saplings with high transpiration rates, or to shaded EMF seedlings with high respiration demands for survival and growth (Read and Bajwa 1985; Simard et al. It honors the non-normative. These molecules travel through the MN rapidly, moving from donor plants to the fungal mycelium within 1 or 2 days (Wu et al. The MN is considered ecologically and evolutionarily significant because of its positive effects on the fitness of the member plants and fungi. I’ve always wanted to visit California’s redwoods, but after reading about the year Nick and Olivia spent living in the limbs of giant Mimas, my desire to make the trip has morphed. Maybe. 2008), can result in legacy effects that impact future generations of the host species (Karst et al. Your reflections and probings helped me absorb the book more fully. He’s so tall, so near the upper limits imposed by gravity, that it takes a day and a half for him to lift water from his roots to the highest of his sixty-five million needles. I also want to do a better job encouraging my creative writing students to grapple with questions related to human diversity. These studies show that plant behavioural responses to resource transfer via MNs are dynamic, asymmetrical at times and dependant on the identity of the plants, the source–sink patterns in the MN and the environmental conditions of the system (Hynson et al. Three pages after Nick’s stint in the Amazon warehouse, Powers depicts Dorothy reading to her husband, Ray, who is severely disabled by a stroke. Your comment will be reviewed and published at the journal's discretion. Overstory made me 2009). Recurrent hybridization underlies the evolution of novelty in, Anisohydric sugar beet rapidly responds to light to optimise leaf water use efficiency utilising numerous small stomata, Genetic variation and genetic structure within metapopulations of two closely related selfing and outcrossing, Home Climate and Habitat Drive Ecotypic Stress Response Differences in an Invasive Grass, Volume 12, Issue 6, December 2020 (In Progress), Mycorrhizal Networks: Structure and Function, Mycorrhizal Network Effects on Plant Behaviour, 10.1890/0012-9615%282002%29072%5B0505:IOETOM%3A2.0.CO%3B2, 10.1890/0012-9658%282006%2987%5B1627:MSITAM%3A2.0.CO%3B2, 10.1641/0006-3568%282005%29055%5B1075:SATEOC%3A2.0.CO%3B2,, Using Ideas from Behavioural Ecology to Understand Plants, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Increased mycorrhization of kin through MN, Defence response to leaf-chewing caterpillar, Increased survival, growth and carbon transfer, Growth after disturbance, carbon transfer, Increased photosynthesis, carbon transfer, Copyright © 2020 Annals of Botany Company. to pay tribute. When the lateral roots of two Douglas-firs run into each other underground, they fuse. Song YY, Zeng RS, Xu JF, Li J, Shen X, Yihdego WG. “The forest is more than what you see,” ecologist Suzanne Simard beamed from the Ted stage in 2016. 1994; Karabaghli-Degron et al. 2003). After he leaves the tree, it is devastating to see him work in an Amazon Fulfillment Center. 2013; Beiler et al. Phenotypic plasticity, the ability of an individual to alter its traits in response to the environment, is a defining feature of plants. 2012). Plant behavioural changes have qualities and quantities that can substantially alter the community ecology of a site, including intra- and interspecific interactions, species co-existence and biodiversity. Powers’ novel implies that we American humans haven’t yet adequately

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