World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. At the same time, involuntary settlement played a role in the colonization of remote areas of the Soviet Union. The first large-scale census in the German Empire took place in 1895 (see German census of 1895). Recovered Territories was an official term used by the Polish People’s Republic to describe the territory of the former Free City of Danzig and the parts of pre-war Germany that became part of Poland after World War II. The states of Nebraska, Florida and Colorado completed the request, along with the territories of New Mexico and Dakota. This article is about the demographic features of the population of Lithuania, including population density, ethnicity, level of education, health, economic status, and religious affiliations. Less than 1 percent of the schedules are available for research today. Articles On Demographics Of Germany, including: German Census Of 1895, Berlin Population Statistics, Population Growth Of Munich, Demographics Of Hamburg: Hephaestus Books: Amazon.com.au: Books [ citation needed ] This is attributed to the official push to Germanize the areas and to legitimize the century of occupation. 410,919 records. Germany - Germany - Germany from 1871 to 1918: The German Empire was founded on January 18, 1871, in the aftermath of three successful wars by the North German state of Prussia. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The German census of 1895 was one of the first full-scale German censuses, organized in all territories of the German Empire.. The 1891 Census marked the third regularly scheduled collection of national statistics. To search without a surname, please select a Year or County to search on. Vilnius Region is the territory in the present-day Lithuania and Belarus that was originally inhabited by ethnic Baltic tribes and was a part of Lithuania proper, but came under East Slavic and Polish cultural influences over time. However, the record was organized at the peak of the Kulturkampf campaign and it is openly criticized for lowering the number of catholics in most of the areas. Though the most notorious was the Gulag labor camp system of penal labor, resettling of entire categories of population was another method of political repression implemented by the Soviet Union. The Province of West Prussia was a province of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and 1878 to 1922. It officially began April 6, 1891. district, Kreis, Standesamt). A few censuses have been taken by various German states, provinces, and cities, and by some ecclesiastical officials. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war. The republic was created in 1920 following the staged rebellion of soldiers of the 1st Lithuanian–Belarusian Infantry Division of the Polish Army under Lucjan Żeligowski, supported by the Polish air force, cavalry and artillery. Polish is a West Slavic language of the Lechitic group. Although living standards have improved dramatically in the East over the past 20 years, it still lags behind in economic development, and as a result, many people head west in search of better job opportunities. This and the 1933 census included race-specific questions which provided the raw material for Nazi race-based policies. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. West Prussia was dissolved in 1829 and merged with East Prussia to form the Province of Prussia, but was re-established in 1878 when the merger was reversed and became part of the German Empire. Over the centuries, however, they had become Germanized through the processes of German eastward settlement (Ostsiedlung) and political expansion (Drang nach Osten) and for the most part did not even contain a Polish-speaking minority. Lithuania Minor enclosed the northern part of this province and got its name due to the territory's substantial Lithuanian-speaking population. The Republic has changed – the data basis has not. The German Empire, also known as Imperial Germany, was the German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918. This number decreased in the last decades from over 300,000 due to an active process of assimilation. When East Germany and West Germany were reunited in 1990, the population of East Germany was around 16.1 million people. Why This Census is Important: The 1890 U.S. Federal Census was damaged and destroyed by fire in 1921. A national census in Germany was not taken until the late 1800’s. Silesia is located along the Oder River. State Censuses for 1895 Many of the same states that took a census in 1885, also took census in 1895; those states include, Florida, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, New Jersey, Oregon, South Dakota, Wisconsin. Some were taken on a kingdom, province or duchy level; however most were taken on a city or district level. Kazakhstan is multiethnic country where the indigenous ethnic group, the Kazakhs, comprise the majority of the population. Because of this problem, the 1895 New Jersey State Census is a highly valuable source as it provides information that would otherwise be found in the Federal Census. While there was some variance in data from one census to another, they all included the following data points: names of each individual, The German census of 1895 was one of the first full-scale German censuses, organized on all territories of the German Empire. This page was last modified 23:40, 22 Dec 2004. It is the official state language of Ukraine, one of the three official languages in the unrecognized state of Transnistria, the other two being Romanian and Russian. Printed copies of the 1841, 1881 and 1901 street indexes are available in the reading rooms at The National Archives. After a variety of delays, a disputed election took place on January 8, 1922, and the territory was annexed to Poland. In Prussia there were from 1816 census the number of public and private houses and the population was listed by sex and age;those under 14, those 14-60 and those over 60. A total of 241 commissioners were appointed to coordinate the census. Both Catholic and Orthodox Christianity were represented, while a large proportion of those within the city were Jews. From 1918, West Prussia was a province of the Free State of Prussia within Weimar Germany, losing most of its territory to the Second Polish Republic and the Free City of Danzig in the Treaty of Versailles. Forced settlements in the Soviet Union took several forms. The Polish diaspora is also known in Modern Polish as Polonia, which is the name for Poland in Latin and in many Romance languages. Any comments or discussion on this page about the proposed move will not be counted. For 1871 census registration district maps see Cassinimaps.co.uk (£). Most of them live in the Podlaskie Voivodeship. The German census of 1895 was one of the first full-scale censae organized on all territories of the German Empire. In 1879 the U.S. government asked states to take a semi-decennial census in 1885 – in addition to the upcoming 1880 and 1890 censuses – with the promise that they would cover 50% of the costs of the undertaking.. Starting in 1871, the census resumed in the newly united German Empire, continuing every five years from 1875 to 1910. https://www.academickids.com:443/encyclopedia/index.php/German_census_of_1895, Data is used in tables in Prussian province articles (see table below), and their descendant articles (Admin. The war ended with the Treaty of Melno and the land was resettled by Lithuanian newcomers, returning refugees, and the remaining indigenous Baltic peoples; the term Lithuania Minor appeared for the first time between 1517 and 1526. They had been part of, or fiefs of, a Polish state during the early medieval Piast dynasty. There are also a few early census records for the Duchy of Mecklenburg for 1633-1634, 1677, and 1689 (microfilm #068,934). If you know what you are looking for, or are … These units were made up of cities, towns, groups of townships, Indian reserves, and other less defined areas. Border conflicts between Poland and Czechoslovakia began in 1918 between the Second Polish Republic and First Czechoslovak Republic, both freshly created states. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society) Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Statistical Methodology) It consists of Lower Silesia and Upper Silesia. There are no preserved census records for Mecklenburg-Strelitz. According to the 2016 census there are two dominant ethnic groups in Kazakhstan: ethnic Kazakhs (65.5%) and ethnic Russians (21.5%) with a wide array of other groups represented, including Ukrainians, Uzbeks, Germans, Tatars, Uyghurs, Koreans, and Meskhetian Turks. Also, the accuracy of the population figures published from the 1895 German census for the Polish territories was "adjusted" to show that the ratio of ethnic Germans to ethnic Poles was much higher than it actually was. At the end of the 19th century the main languages spoken were Polish, Lithuanian, Belarusian and Russian. The German census of 1895 was one of the first full-scale censae organized on all territories of the German Empire.. Prior to 1871 many German counties organized various local census records, however most of the results did not survive World War II. Reporting to the commissioners, 4,324 enumerators were then assigned to a clearly defined area. West Prussia was dissolved in 1922, and its remaining western territory was merged with Posen to form Posen-West Prussia, and its eastern territory merged with East Prussia as the Region of West Prussia district. Prior to the invasion of the Teutonic Knights in the 13th century, the main part of the territory later known as Lithuania Minor was inhabited by the tribes of Skalvians and Nadruvians. The German census of 1895 was one of the first full-scale German censuses, organized in all territories of the German Empire.. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English. 1890 United States Federal Census Fragment; 1890 Veterans Schedules of the U.S. Federal Census Updated; Abington, Massachusetts Directories, 1889, 1892; Adams County, Illinois Directory, 1892 The population of self-declared Poles in Poland is estimated at 37,394,000 out of an overall population of 38,538,000, of whom 36,522,000 declared Polish alone. Written Ukrainian uses a variant of the Cyrillic script. Enumerators collected information for 4,833,2… This is attributed to the official push to germanize the areas and to legitimize the century of occupation. The conflicts became critical in 1919 and were finally settled in 1958 in a treaty between the People's Republic of Poland and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. Germany - Germany - The economy, 1890–1914: The speed of Germany’s advance to industrial maturity after 1890 was breathtaking. With the exception of the Klaipėda Region, which became a mandated territory of the League of Nations in 1920 by the Treaty of Versailles and was annexed to Lithuania from 1923 to 1939, the area was part of Prussia until 1945. The Polish language was banned from usage in administration and education and the data for numbers of Polish speakers was lowered. There are over 50 million Polish-language speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union. The land became depopulated to some extent during the warfare between Lithuania and the Order. The rationale for the term "Recovered" was the Piast Concept that these territories were 900 years ago part of the traditional Polish homeland. The people spoke a language now known as Old Prussian and followed pagan Prussian mythology. After the founding of the Second German Empire, a census was taken every five years (1875 – 1916, the last census being delayed by World War I). The Polish minority in the Soviet Union refers to people of Polish descent who used to reside in the Soviet Union before its 1991 dissolution, and who live in post-Soviet, sovereign countries of Europe and Asia as their significant minorities at present time, including the Kresy macroregion, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan among others. Old Prussians or Baltic Prussians refers to the indigenous peoples from a cluster of Baltic tribes that inhabited the region of Prussia. A national census in Germany was held every five years from 1875 to 1910. Lithuania Minor, or Prussian Lithuania, is a historical ethnographic region of Prussia, later East Prussia in Germany, where Prussian Lithuanians lived. It was located on the south-eastern shore of the Baltic Sea between the Vistula Lagoon to the west and the Curonian Lagoon to the east. Its mission was the establishment of toponyms for places, villages, towns and cities in the former eastern territories of Germany. Silesians is a geographical term for the inhabitants of Silesia, a historical region in Central Europe divided by the current national boundaries of Poland, Germany and the Czech Republic. World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. German Minority Census, 1939 . Even though censuses were conducted about every 5 years or so, the only "national" level census from the 1800s that survived and had information of genealogical value is the 1895 census. Prior to 1871 many German counties organized various local census records, however most of the results did not survive [ citation needed ] World War II . Census records are confidential for 72 years, but after that anyone with an interest can look at them. Information about the Hamburg, Germany passenger departure records -- how to research them online and off. Census for Mecklenburg-Schwerin is available at the Family History Centers for 1704, 1751, 1819, 1867, 1890 and 1900. After World War II they broadened to include areas around the cities of Kłodzko and Racibórz, which until 1945 had belonged to Germany. Centered on the historical capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Vilna, for eighteen months the entity served as a buffer state between Poland, upon which it depended, and Lithuania, which claimed the area. West Prussia was established as a province of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1773, formed from Royal Prussia of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth annexed in the First Partition of Poland. The Republic of Central Lithuania or Middle Lithuania, or Central Lithuania, was a short-lived political entity, which did not gain international recognition. Enumerators visited 201 census districts, divided into 2,475 sub-districts. population of Germany is about 1.3 million too high. The German census of 1895 was one of the first full-scale German censuses, organized in all territories of the German Empire. Germany Area and Population Density. Many of these people were killed in the Holocaust and this census is the last written trace of them. This collection contains the names of all individuals listed in the 1939 census of Germany who lived in a household where at least one person in the household had a Jewish grandparent. Within a seven-year period Denmark, the Habsburg monarchy, and France were vanquished in short, decisive conflicts. Together with resources like city directories, these can provide information on your … This role was specifically mentioned in the first Soviet decrees about involuntary labor camps. Nowadays the term Western Territories is more popular because of its ideological neutrality. It gives detailed info on population, property, religion and nationality in all German territories. 4.3 Post-1911 censuses. However, the record was organized at the peak of the Kulturkampf campaign and it is openly criticized for understating the number of Catholics in most of the areas. Bukovina is a historical region, variously described as in Central or Eastern Europe. That means that the censuses of 1790 to 1930 are now available, with the 1940 one to be released in 2012. Not everyone was counted and this census is highly criticized … The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. This region lent its name to the later state of Prussia. In addition, some regions, like Western Pomerania, were controlled by Polish kings for only about 50 years during the early Middle Ages followed by more than 800 years of German rule, making the argument of traditional Polish homeland rather based on nationalistic ideas than on historical facts. The conflicts centered on the disputed areas of Cieszyn Silesia, Orava Territory and Spiš. German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. Today a small portion of Lithuania Minor is within the borders of modern Lithuania and Poland while most of the territory is part of the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia. Only a statistical summary is available. Learn how and when to remove this template message. More rarely, the term is used by extension to refer to the power struggles between emerging constitutional democratic nation states and the Roman Catholic Church over the place and role of religion in modern polity, usually in connection with secularization campaigns. The 1895 census is the first Volksz�hlung (German People count) to be published in the "Statistik des Deutschen Reiches" yearly and survive. The years from 1895 to 1907 witnessed a doubling of the number of workers engaged in machine building, from slightly more than one-half million to well over a million. Kulturkampf is a German term referring to the conflict between the German imperial government and the Roman Catholic Church from about 1872 to 1878, predominantly over the control of educational and ecclesiastical appointments. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol (Italy), the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. When searching Census US please provide at least the first 2 characters of a Surname eg sm* to find smith, smyth, smithy, etc. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. Local censuses began as early as 1500’s, though most do not appear until the late 1700’s and early 1800’s. Ukrainian is an East Slavic language. The most recent census, though not a national census, was the 2011 European Union census. After the World Wars, only a few full population censuses have been held, the last in 1987. The Polish diaspora refers to Poles who live outside Poland. The 1895 census is the first Volkszählung (German People count) to be published in the Statistik des Deutschen Reiches yearly, with copies surviving. Prior to 1871 many German counties organized various local census records, however most of the results did not survive[ citation needed ] World War II. The region is located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains, today divided between Romania and Ukraine. It gives detailed info on population, property, religion and nationality in all German territories. It is spoken primarily in Poland and serves as the native language of the Poles. In addition to being an official language of Poland, it is also used by Polish minorities in other countries. GERMAN MINORITY CENSUS OF 1938-1939; The Bundesarchiv created this computerized form of the 1938 Minority census (see AA0366) to aid in the creation of the _Gedenkbuch_ (GB0111). The city of Vilnius, now the capital of Lithuania, and its surrounding region have at various times come under Polish-Lithuanian, Russian, Polish, German, and Soviet rule. Its area is about 40,000 km2 (15,444 sq mi), and its population about 8,000,000. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. The population of Post-World War II Poland became nearly completely ethnically homogeneous as a result of the German-Nazi Holocaust, the radically altered borders, and the deportations ordered by the Soviet authorities, who wished to remove the sizeable Polish minorities from the Baltics (Lithuania) and Eastern Europe. Lübeck, Germany, Census Records for various years between 1807 and 1880 Lübeck, Germany, Burials, 1832-1988 Lübeck, Germany, Personal Index Cards, 1300s-1850 Lübeck, Germany, Births, Marriage Banns, and Deaths, 1811-1875 And other items Silesia is a historical region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany. The Poles, commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history, and are native speakers of the Polish language. The 1895 census is the first Volkszählung (German People count) to be published in the Statistik des Deutschen Reiches yearly, with copies surviving. The "Lithuanian" element was seen as declining, while the "Slavic" element was increasing. The Commission for the Determination of Place Names was a commission of the Polish Department of Public Administration, founded in January 1946. I have made a proposal to move the name of this article to Census of Germany, 1895, to discuss this please go to Talk:2001 Bangladesh census#Requested move where a full debate is taking place. An exception is the census of 1890, which was largely destroyed in a fire. The Belarusian minority in Poland is composed of 47,000 people according to the Polish census of 2011. FamilySearch's German Historical Record Collections. Prior to 1871 many German counties organized various local census records, however most of the results did not survive World War II.The 1895 census is the first Volksz hlung (German People count) to be published in the "Statistik des Deutschen Reiches" yearly and survive.